What do we really know about Cooperative and Connected Automated Mobility (CCAM)? First, the definition of what CCAM represents, is still under construction. SINFONICA project is contributing to this effort, providing a broad definition that includes Mobility-as-a-Service (Maas) concepts[1].

Moving within these still malleable boundaries, let’s talk through numbers and have a panoramic view of what’s going on in Europe about CCAM, which is expected to improve traffic management, road safety, liveability, and comfort.

On the 23rd of June of 2021, within the Horizon Europe Framework and following the EU CCAM Single Platform’s approach, where almost 400 experts of all relevant public and private sectors gathered to coordinate open road testing and to link with pre-deployment activities, CCAM partnership was born. Addressing the 4 Problem Drivers[2] in a coordinated and concentrated manner is the main aim of the Partnership. Until now, more than 200 stakeholders, representatives of Industry, Research, Public authorities and road operators, Mobility and logistics services, Representative bodies, and Regulatory bodies, have joined the association to bring CCAM technologies to the next level.

Figure 1: CCAM Partnership Stakeholders. Author’s elaboration based on data from www.connectedautomateddriving.eu

CCAM Partnership is structured in 7 Clusters, which are interlinked and provide input to other Clusters, as detailed in Figure 2.

Figure 2: CCAM Partnership’s 7 Clusters. Source: Clusters - CCAM

The starting point is the understanding of the user needs and societal aspects of mobility (6), and the SINFONICA project has joined the efforts of this Cluster, to strengthen the link with the CCAM SRIA (Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda) Objectives. Then, key enabling technologies (5) are needed to enhance solutions. These will be implemented together with vehicle technologies for sensing, sensor fusion and enhanced safety systems (2). The overall transport system integration complements safe human-machine interaction to understand the requirements and needs for traffic and fleet management and provide physical and digital infrastructure support (4). Before demonstrating at a large scale (1), safe and resilient system functioning needs to be validated (3). Finally, all activities are linked through coordination (7) of all relevant stakeholders, ensuring alignment, interoperability and accelerating innovation uptake.

Collective knowledge and experience from past and ongoing projects and initiatives on CCAM in Europe is available and accessible at the Knowledge Base. According to the information collected, currently there are more than 300 testing and demonstration sites; here you can have a look at the map of demonstration locations across Europe. In addition to this, more than 400 R&I projects and demonstration activities related to CCAM have been developed until now, around 10 thematic areas: 1) Big data/AI; 2) Connectivity; 3) Deployment (Large-Scale Pilots, production & industrialization); 4) Enabling/ perception technologies; 5) Human Factors; 6) New Mobility Services/ Business models; 7) Physical & digital infrastructure; 8) Policy & regulation; 9) Safety validation / roadworthiness testing; 10) Socio-economic impact assessment/ sustainability.

In 2021 and 2022, a total of 18 CCAM projects have been funded by Horizon Europe, including the SINFONICA project, for a total cost of more than 180 million euro, as detailed in the following infographics.

Figure 3: Outreach of CCAM projects funded by HE 2021-2022. Source: CCAM - Projects

Regarding MaaS, in 2017 the public-private partnership called MaaS Alliance was created worldwide, aiming to build a common approach to MaaS and unlock the economies of scale needed to support the successful implementation and uptake of MaaS globally. According to the MaaS Alliance website, there are currently 108 members and 18 partners in the MaaS Alliance. The members include public authorities, transport/mobility service providers, technology solutions providers, associations, and consultancy, research, and innovation organisations. The MaaS Alliance is organized in 3 Working Groups: Governance & Business Models; Users & Rules; Technology & Standards. Currently, within the SINFONICA consortium, 5 partners are active members of the MaaS Alliance.

In conclusion, CCAM is fostering a sense of shared responsibility among various stakeholders, from governments and industries to end-users, as they work together to shape the future of mobility. Moreover, Mobility-as-a-Service is gaining traction, redefining how people perceive and utilize transportation services. The shift from ownership to access models is promoting sustainability and flexibility, aligning with the changing preferences of modern urban populations.

Despite the notable progress, challenges remain, including regulatory frameworks, data privacy concerns, and the need for standardized protocols. Europe, however, stands at the forefront of these developments, with a collaborative spirit that positions it as a global leader in shaping the future of connected, cooperative, and automated mobility. As we look ahead, continued collaboration, innovation, and a commitment to addressing challenges will be crucial for unlocking the full potential of CCAM (including MaaS), ensuring a smarter, safer, and more sustainable future for mobility in Europe and beyond.

[1] According to the vocabulary developed within SINFONICA project, CCAM is defined as: “Combining connectivity, cooperative systems, and automation in the road transport sector for mobility. It can enable smart traffic management, shared mobility services integration with public transport, Mobility-as-a-Service and automated public transport services”.

[2] 1) Understanding of the benefits and impacts of integrating CCAM solutions into the mobility system is still limited. 2) CCAM solutions maturity level for wide market take-up, and current investment levels in CCAM R&I to be improved. 3) Current R&I efforts lack a coherent, longer-term vision and strategy for targeting systemic solutions. 4) Demonstration and scale-up is limited.

Author: Giacomo Cantini (UNIMORE)